Sunday, December 8, 2019
Questions: 1. Describe the process of how you developed the Research Question (in other words, what sort of research activities did you do?) 2. What is the working/draft Research Question that you have developed, based on the process? 3. What is the knowledge gap that you seek to fill with this research? 4. What type of methods will best suit your research (i.e. qualitative, quantitative, mixed), and why? 5. Outline and justify the proposed research methodology. Discuss the rationale for your selection of the following: (a). research techniques (b). brief outline of data collection (c). proposed analyses. Answers: 1. Process of developing the research question I developing my research question, I focused a lot on the pertinent issues that the society faces in the health sector and some of the major constraints faced by health providers while carrying out their duties. I began formulating my research question by focusing on the broad topic of health and how health care determines the economic welfare of people in the society. I embarked on the health as my research topic because the topic can be studied due to the research gaps on the topic. I listed all the possible research questions about health that could be answered during my research. Out of the many questions listed, I ranked the items according to the order of their relevance and urgency in health. After ranking the questions, I chose the best question the one which is neither too narrow nor too broad to be researched upon. In deciding which research question is best, I researched on the sources of information for the research that are available and able to answer my research questi on and how reliable are they. I found that there were enough and reliable sources for the research question to be fully answered. My knowledge also guided me in choosing then research question and the availability of the gaps in the research topic were also considered. Before embarking on the research topic, I subjected my research question on a rigorous evaluation to determine the possibility of successfully completing the research. 2. Research question What is the effect of technological innovation on health care provision? 3. Research gap In the past, researchers have carried out research about information technology and its relevance to healthcare provision focusing so much on the information recording and keeping (Kelley, 2016). Very little has been done about how technology can reduce the expenditure on health, improve decision making, improve health care access and facilitate ample communication between health care providers and patients (Barham, 2014). Research need to be done to evaluate on what role does technology innovation play in health care provision and majorly focus on decision making, communication improvement and medical access to patients (Issel, 2015). In the past, researchers have not given attention research on some of the barriers to successfully implement technology in the healthcare system and methods in which theses obstacles can be overcome so that patients receive improved health care (Berkowitz McCarthy, 2013). Methods of research Both qualitative and quantitative research methods are used in this research for various reasons. One primary reason for using both methods of research is the kind of information needed to clearly address the aforementioned research question and come up with a broad conclusion. Another reason for mixed research is the fact that research question requires both primary and secondary data to be fully answered (Bassett, 2004). The research question is wide and needs comprehensive data and information to be fully addressed. Research methodology The research methodology will involve the use of both qualitative and quantitative tools of data collection but will mostly rely on qualitative data for most of its analysis focusing on social aspects of health and how it can be improved by use of technological innovations(Patton Patton, 2002). First, the research will begin by gathering information from various books and other secondary sources about the roles that technology plays in healthcare provision (Issel, 2015). The information will be collected from different books, journals, articles and previous researches that were done information documented in the library database. Data will also be gathered from various primary sources using interviews, surveys, questionnaires and by observations. Initially, a survey will be conducted to measure how satisfied diverse groups of people are with the provision of health care services in public and private healthcare institutions (Liamputtong, 2011). The target group for this research will vary from college and university students, locals, medical staff and all the people that receive medical services from various health care institutions in both the public and private hospitals. The research will focus on using descriptive analysis method due to the nature of the research question that should be answered. During the research, I will administer a survey to selected samples of college and university students, locals, and health care workers. The purpose of using a survey for this research is because the study aims at collecting data from specified samples of the population (Liamputtong, 2011). Furthermore, the survey instruments that will be used for this research will be questionnaires and interviews to the targeted samples. Since the research involves the collection of information about the quality of health and technology utilized in the provision of healthcare services, surveys are the most appropriate method of data collection. Furthermore, surveys are a key tool to conducting social and basic science researchers. Theirs is a significant advantage of using questionnaires as survey instruments as opposed to interviews because they are easy to administer, c an be administered to several sample groups and respondents are assured of the confidentiality than personal interviews. Moreso, after considering the cost of data collection when using personal interviews and questionnaires, it became clear that questionnaires are cost effective. Because of the above-mentioned advantages, the research will mostly employ questionnaires in data collection. Proposed analyses Data analysis for this research will be done using both statistical and descriptive analysis techniques. Before the actual data analysis, information collected from the surveys will be checked for completeness and correctness. After data has been confirmed for the two features, data will be keyed into the database for analysis to produce the output. Computer programs such as Stata and SPSS will be used for the analysis of data and results be recorded in the table. During the analysis, all incomplete surveys will be canceled and not included in the analysis process. Descriptive tools and frequency tables will be constructed to present the results in an organized manner for various groups of people to interpret the data. References Lyon, F., Mollering, G., Saunders, M. N. K. (2011). Handbook of Research Methods on Trust. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Pub. Newell, R., Burnard, P., Newell, R. (2011). Research for evidence-based practice in healthcare. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. Chatburn, R. L. (2011). Handbook for health care research. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Krueger, R. A., Casey, M. A. (2014). Focus Groups: A Practical Guide for Applied Research White, P. (2009). Developing research questions: A guide for social scientists. Basingstoke [England: Palgrave Macmillan. Bassett, C. (2004). Qualitative research in health care. London: Whurr. Denicolo, P., Becker, L. (2012). Developing Research Proposals. Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approach. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications. Issel, L. (2015). Health care changes and research gaps. Health Care Management Review, 40(2), 91. Daim, T. U., Behkami, N. A., Basoglu, N., Kok, O. M., Hogaboam, L. (2016). Healthcare technology innovation adoption: Electronic health records and other emerging health information technology innovations. Barham, L. (2014). Research gaps and Health Technology Assessment. Farmeconomia. Health Economics And Therapeutic Pathways, 15(2). Kelley, T. (2016). Electronic health records for quality nursing health care / Tiffany Kelley. Berkowitz, L., McCarthy, C. (2013). Innovation with information technologies in healthcare. London: Springer. Fasano, P. (2013). Transforming health care: The financial impact of technology, electronic tools, and data mining. Liamputtong, P. (2011). Focus Group Methodology: Principle and Practice Omona, J. (2013). Sampling in Qualitative Research: Improving the Quality of Research Outcomes in Higher Education. Mak. J. High. Edu., 4(2). Ozerdem, A., Bowd, R. (2010). Participatory research methodologies: Development and post-disaster/conflict reconstruction. Farnham, England: Ashgate. Patton, M. Patton, M. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.
Saturday, November 30, 2019
William Bradford The leadership strengths and weaknesses of John Smith evoked a profound effect on the Jamestown colony. The fact that Smith actually arrived in the colony as a common prisoner and was able to achieve the leadership role that he gained is amazing. His creativity and knowledge in certain areas actually saved the colonists from attack and starvation in the early days. Some of the rules he enforced as a leader were actually instrumental in saving the colony. His skill in dealing with the natives allowed him to gain their support and continue trade that resulted in the survival of the colony. Christopher Newport, the admiral that transported John Smith and many of the colonists from England, left the Jamestown colony in the fall of 1607. Immediately all work in the settlement ceased to exist. The colonists had decided to wait on Newport to return with new workers. The plan was for the natives to provide food for them while they waited. When the natives never came with food, Ratcliffe, the current president
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Napoleon and the Italian Campaign of 1796Ã¢â¬â1797 The campaign fought by French General Napoleon Bonaparte in Italy in 1796Ã¢â¬â7 helped end the French Revolutionary Wars in favor of France. But they were arguably more significant for what they did for Napoleon: from one French commander among many, his string of successes established him as one of FranceÃ¢â¬â¢s, and EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s, brightest military talents, and revealed a man able to exploit victory for his own political goals. Napoleon showed himself to be not just a great leader on the battlefield but a canny exploiter of propaganda, willing to make his own peace deals for his own benefit. Napoleon Arrives Napoleon was given command of the Army of Italy in March 1796, two days after marrying Josephine. On route to his new base- Nice- he changed the spelling of his name. The Army of Italy was not intended to be the main focus of France in the coming campaign- that was to be Germany- and the DirectoryÃ may have been just shunting Napoleon off somewhere he couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t cause trouble. While the army was ill-organized and with sinking morale, the idea that the young Napoleon had to win over a force of veterans is exaggerated, with the possible exception of the officers: Napoleon had claimed victory at Toulon and was known to the army. They wanted victory and to many, it seemed like Napoleon was their best chance of getting it, so he was welcomed. However, the army of 40,000 was definitely poorly equipped, hungry, disillusioned, and falling apart, but it was also composed of experienced soldiers who just needed the right leadership and supplies. Napoleon would later highlight how much of a difference he made to the army, how he transformed it, and while he overstated to make his role look better (as ever), he certainly provided what was needed. Promising troops that they would be paid in captured gold was among his cunning tactics to reinvigorate the army, and he soon worked hard to bring in supplies, crack down on deserters, show himself to the men, and impress on all his determination. Conquest Napoleon initially faced two armies, one Austrian and one from Piedmont. If they had united, they would have outnumbered Napoleon, but they were hostile to each other and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t. Piedmont was unhappy at being involved and Napoleon resolved to defeat it first. He attacked quickly, turning from one enemy to another, and managed to force Piedmont to leave the war entirely by forcing them on a large retreat, breaking their will to continue, and signing the Treaty of Cherasco. The Austrians retreated, and less than a month after arriving in Italy, Napoleon had Lombardy. At the start of May, Napoleon crossed the Po to chase an Austrian army, defeated their rear-guard at the battle of Lodi, where the French stormed a well-defended bridge head on. It did wonders for NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation despite it being a skirmish that could have been avoided if Napoleon had waited a few days for the Austrian retreat to continue. Napoleon next took Milan, where he established a republican gove rnment. The effect on the armyÃ¢â¬â¢s morale was great, but on Napoleon, it was arguably greater: he began to believe he could do remarkable things. Lodi is arguably the starting point of NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s rise. Napoleon now besieged Mantua but the German part of the French plan had not even begun and Napoleon had to halt. He spent the time intimidating cash and submissions from the rest of Italy. Around $60 million francs in cash, bullion, and jewels had so far been gathered. Art was equally in demand by the conquerors, while rebellions had to be stamped out. Then a new Austrian army under Wurmser marched forth to tackle Napoleon, but he was again able to take advantage of a divided force- Wurmser sent 18,000 men under one subordinate and took 24,000 himself- to win multiple battles. Wurmser attacked again in September, but Napoleon flanked and ravaged him before Wurmser finally managed to merge some of his force with the defenders of Mantua. Another Austrian rescue force split up, and after Napoleon narrowly won at Arcola, he was able to defeat this in two chunks as well. Arcola saw Napoleon take a standard and lead an advance, doing wonders again for his reputation for personal bravery, i f not personal safety. As the Austrians made a new attempt to save Mantua in early 1797, they failed to bring their maximum resources to bear, and Napoleon won the battle of Rivoli in mid-January, halving the Austrians and forcing them into Tyrol. In February 1797, with their army broken by disease, Wurmser and Mantua surrendered. Napoleon had conquered northern Italy. The pope was now induced to buy Napoleon off. Having received reinforcements (he had 40,000 men), he now decided to defeat Austria by invading it but was faced by Archduke Charles. However, Napoleon managed to force him right back- CharlesÃ¢â¬â¢ morale was low- and after getting to within sixty miles of the enemy capital Vienna, he decided to offer terms. The Austrians had been subjected to a terrible shock, and Napoleon knew he was far from his base, facing Italian rebellion with tired men. As negotiations went on, Napoleon decided he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t finished, and he captured the Republic of Genoa, which transformed into the Ligurian Republic, as well as took parts of Venice. A preliminary treaty- Leoben- was drawn up, annoying the French government as it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t clarify the position in the Rhine. The Treaty of Campo Formio, 1797 Although the war was, in theory, between France and Austria, Napoleon negotiated the Treaty of Campo Formio with Austria himself, without listening to his political masters. A coup by three of the directors which remodeled the French executive ended Austrian hopes of splitting FranceÃ¢â¬â¢s executive from its leading General, and they agreed on terms. France kept the Austrian Netherlands (Belgium), conquered states in Italy were transformed into the Cisalpine Republic ruled by France, Venetian Dalmatia was taken by France, the Holy Roman Empire was to be rearranged by France, and Austria had to agree to support France in order to hold Venice. The Cisalpine Republic may have taken the French constitution, but Napoleon dominated it. In 1798, French forces took Rome and Switzerland, turning them into new, revolutionary styled states. Consequences NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s string of victories thrilled France (and many later commentators), establishing him as the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s pre-eminent general, a man who had finally ended the war in Europe; an act seemingly impossible for anyone else. It also established Napoleon as a key political figure and redrew the map of Italy. The vast sums of loot sent back to France helped maintain a government increasingly losing fiscal and political control.
Friday, November 22, 2019
Sampling With or Without Replacement Statistical sampling can be done in a number of different ways. In addition to the type of sampling method that we use, there is another question relating to what specifically happens to an individual that we have randomly selected.Ã This question that arises when sampling is, After we select an individual and record the measurement of attribute were studying, what do we do with the individual? There are two options: We can replace the individual back into the pool that we are sampling from.We can choose to not replace the individual.Ã We can very easily see that these lead to two different situations. Ã In the first option, replacement leaves open the possibility that the individual is randomly chosen a second time.Ã For the second option, if we are working without replacement, then it is impossible to pick the same person twice.Ã We will see that this difference will affect the calculation of probabilities related to these samples. Effect on Probabilities To see how we handle replacement affects the calculation of probabilities, consider the following example question. What is the probability of drawing two aces from a standard deck of cards? This question is ambiguous.Ã What happens once we draw the first card?Ã Do we put it back into the deck, or do we leave it out?Ã We start with calculating the probability with replacement.Ã There are four aces and 52 cards total, so the probability of drawing one ace is 4/52. If we replace this card and draw again, then the probability is again 4/52. These events are independent, so we multiply the probabilities (4/52) x (4/52) 1/169, or approximately 0.592%. Now we will compare this to the same situation, with the exception that we do not replace the cards.Ã The probability of drawing an ace on the first draw is still 4/52. For the second card, we assume that an ace has been already drawn.Ã We must now calculate a conditional probability.Ã In other words, we need to know what the probability of drawing a second ace, given that the first card is also an ace. There are now three aces remaining out of a total of 51 cards. So the conditional probability of a second ace after drawing an ace is 3/51.Ã The probability of drawing two aces without replacement is (4/52) x (3/51) 1/221, or about 0.425%. We see directly from the problem above that what we choose to do with replacement has bearing on the values of probabilities.Ã It can significantly change these values. Population Sizes There are some situations where sampling with or without replacement does not substantially change any probabilities.Ã Suppose that we are randomly choosing two people from a city with a population of 50,000, of which 30,000 of these people are female. If we sample with replacement, then the probability of choosing a female on the first selection is given by 30000/50000 60%.Ã The probability of a female on the second selection is still 60%.Ã The probability of both people being female is 0.6 x 0.6 0.36. If we sample without replacement then the first probability is unaffected.Ã The second probability is now 29999/49999 0.5999919998..., which is extremely close to 60%.Ã The probability that both are female is 0.6 x 0.5999919998 0.359995. The probabilities are technically different, however, they are close enough to be nearly indistinguishable.Ã For this reason, many times even though we sample without replacement, we treat the selection of each individual as if they are independent of the other individuals in the sample. Other Applications There are other instances where we need to consider whether to sample with or without replacement. On example of this is bootstrapping. This statistical technique falls under the heading of a resampling technique. In bootstrapping we start with a statistical sample of a population. We then use computer software to compute bootstrap samples. In other words, the computer resamples with replacement from the initial sample.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Writing Assignment - Essay Example This paper will critically analyze the book Frankenstein by Shelley on the teachings of the actions we take whether they are justifiable and redeemable in our current world. At the end of the book, the creature promises to destroy himself. This is highly not justifiable for this creature. The creature reasoning as to commit suicide is as a result it had the feelings of human nature. The creature felt mistreated and segregated. The main driving force was the realization that Frankenstein his own creator had abandoned him. In search to kill the creator the creature came to Frankenstein had died, it felt lonely as that was the family he ever knew was all gone, (Shelly p 68). The moral teaching is that everyone needs to have a sense of belonging. The creature lacked this love and therefore had to react this way. The creature could have been redeemed. The creature had no harm to any other living organisms like the plants and birds of the air. The creature had some sense of humor. Despite having destroyed the FrankensteinÃ¢â¬â¢s family. The creature didnÃ¢â¬â¢t cause any physical or psychological harm Robert Walton, (Shelly p 69). Frankenstein as seen in the Shelly novel, he created a creature and abandoned the creature without having taken fully responsibility of his creation. This relates very well to the many things that need our attention and jokingly we neglect them. In relation to the world this can as well be related to the irresponsible parents who bear children and fail to bring them up in the right quality life. These kind of neglected individuals are frustrated and have no true meaning of life. When these children grow up and realize what happened in their early life, the first victims are the parents, (Shelly p 22). The parents will have to pay the price for having neglected their uncontrollable children who then end up in crime. The issue of
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Management Planning in TYCO - Case Study Example The well-conceived mission statement defines the fundamental unique purpose that sets TYCO apart from other firms of its type and defines where the company wants to be in the next 5 to 10 years. TYCO operates on the global market marked by fierce competition and constant changes. For this reason, TYCO uses planning as one of the main tools which help it to reach the stated goals and objectives. The implementation of strategy occurs at all levels of the organization, including both corporate and individual departments (www.tyco.com). To that end, each department and support unit complement and support one another (Marketing Planning, n.d.). Planning involves such important elements of management as strategy formulation defined s an ongoing approach that combines both successful practices of the past with fresh and innovative approaches to the future. In TYCO, the midlevel manager is not the person who is responsible for creating corporate strategy. Rather, it is his responsibility to translate corporate strategy into action. TYCO's core competency is to create unique products and services in comparison to its competitors (Planning 1995). In TYCO, all managers find themselves to a greater or lesser extent faced with the challenge of trying to balance routine office responsibilities (i.e., phone calls, answering requests for information, etc.) with the need to complete organizational goals and project tasks. In order to successfully plan, the manager must be good at establishing priorities. To that end, effective managers exercise good time management skills and set aside time to complete organizational goals and project tasks. For instance, TYCO's consultant must routinely balance competing requirements in selecting technologies and service vendors. The consultant, however, may choose to weigh the criteria differently, depending on the project and client requirements (www.tyco.com). The planning model checklist allows the consultant to attach an assigned numeric value for each vendor proposal across different categories that can be totaled and scored and used as a basis for comparison. The planning function of manage ment helps TYCO to organize its activities and performance in accordance with external and internal changes and market demands which influence the company and its customers (Planning 1995). At the beginning of the 21st century, legal issues, ethics and corporate social responsibility become the core of any business. Legal issues involve industry requirements and product quality, product standards and international regulations. The globalization of economic activity has forced TYCO to carefully consider its economic policies. The common motivation behind such regulatory and economic reforms is the perceived inefficiency of central planning and government-protected monopolies. One of the vivid examples of legal issues is TYCO's compliance with the international price regulations. Operating on a global scale, TYCO follows international regulations and rules. For TYCO it is more in keeping with performance-based regulation - that is, to create rewards and incentives for effective utility management. Price regulation has built into the regulatory framework a system of rewards and penalties. There are a number of ways to build in incentives,
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Role of family in health and disease Essay The good health of an individual primarily increases the longevity of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life. The sphere of health has increased far beyond the concept of health system of the previous generation, including exercise and well-being. In this context, autonomy means the right of the patient to choose the treatment that he believes is best for him. The intimate knowledge of the family regarding the individual aids the decision making process. When the individual is in poor health, his actions are limited thereby necessitating support from family and friends. Stress When there is a common problem creating stress, the whole family is stuck in a vicious cycle of negativity aggravating health related issues. When there is an increasing demand in the ability to cope, stress becomes a threat to the physical and emotional well-being of the others as well. Stress is a psychological and physiological response to events that cause personal imbalance in life. Prolonged exposure to stress increases the risk to health as stress is cumulative. Anything that forces one to adjust is a stressor. These include a divorce, a child leaving home, a planned pregnancy, a move to a new town, a career change, graduating process, diagnosis of a malignant disease. These events are rare occurrences in a lifetime. Therefore, analyzing further, we conclude that major stressors are the daily hassles and demands made on an individual.[i] Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Family and relationships are the most common stressors, though environmental conditions can be strenuous. Arguments, financial conditions, marital disagreements, rebellious teens, or caring for a chronically ill family member or a child with special needs can increase stress levels of all the family members. Some of these situations have an impact on society. Therefore, poverty, financial pressures, racial and sexual discrimination or harassment, unemployment, isolation, and a lack of social support take a toll on the quality of life and become stressful to deal with. Stress Warning Signs and Symptoms[ii] Cognitive Symptoms Emotional Symptoms Memory problems Indecisiveness Inability to concentrate Poor judgment Anxious or racing thoughts Constant worrying Loss of objectivity Fearful anticipation Moodiness Agitation Restlessness Irritability, impatience Inability to relax Sense of loneliness and isolation Depression or general unhappiness Physical Symptoms Behavioral Symptoms Headaches or backaches Muscle tension and stiffness Diarrhea or constipation Nausea, dizziness Insomnia Chest pain, rapid heartbeat Weight gain or loss Skin breakouts (hives, eczema) Eating more or less Sleeping too much or too little Procrastination, neglecting responsibilities Using alcohol, cigarettes, or drugs to relax Nervous habits (e.g. nail biting,) Overdoing activities (e.g. exercising, shopping) Overreacting to unexpected problems Ã FAMILY STRESS Family stress is the imbalance between the demands of the family and its ability to cope. The way in which the family perceives the stressor explains the values and previous experiences of the family in meeting the crisis. The family is aided by resources like the external support provided by friends, colleagues and the community. The central mechanism through which the stress is eliminated or managed is Ã¢â¬Å"CopingÃ¢â¬ . The following elements that we consider are the individual family member, the family system, the community to which the family belongs. Problem Statement: Let us cite an example to prove that stress caused due to families will increase the health risk of all members. The concept of a broken family which is a major factor attributing to chronic stress will be examined in detail. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The root cause of poverty and income disparity is undeniably dependant on the presence or absence of the marriage. A married person remains influenced by factors thatÃ Ã Ã inoculate that person against divorce. These include sharing a religious faith, getting married over the age of 25 and completing education. All of these factors lead to greater economic prosperity and remain a basis for good health. Broken families experience lower levels of educational achievement and therefore earn less. They pass on the prospect of meager incomes and family instability to the next generation. Broken families arise from divorce, cohabitation, out of Wedlock childbirth. Divorce The Monthly Vital Statistics report from the National centre for health statistics has stated that the growth in the number of children born into broken families in America has risen to 58 for every 100 born in 1992 from 12 for every 100 born in 1950.[iii] It directly reduces the prosperity of the family. It determines the length of the poverty spell and is the greatest threat to women from the lower income families. It reduces the likelihood of asset formation. Ã¢â¬Å"For a nuclear family, the family income averaged at $43,600, and when these same children lived with single parents, their family income is reduced to an average income of $25,300.[iv] It increases a motherÃ¢â¬â¢s financial responsibility. Divorce and additional work hours affect her network of support for parenting. These chronic stresses lead to physical and mental illness, addictions, even leading to suicide in some cases. There is a reduction in the educational accomplishments of the affected children. Ã Therefore, their probable prosperity level remains unachieved. There is a rise in the chance of a teenage pregnancy. The family and social stress weakens their psychological and physical health, and predisposes them to rapid initiation of sexual relationships and higher levels of marital instability. It raises the probability in boys never to marry.[v]. For the father, factors like increased financial responsibility, greater chances of cohabiting, decreasing parental influence, and addictions, decrease their performance at work. The relationship and work related stresses could trigger major health problems. Cohabitation These couples express uncertainty about their marriage together and are probable to divorce at a rate higher mainly due to their inability to commit. The present generation exhibit that sex, living arrangements and parenting depend less on marriage. 40% of the cohabiting couples have children, and 12% have had a biological child during cohabitation.[vi] 80 % of children who have lived with cohabiting parents will spend some of their childhood in a single-parent home.[vii] Cohabiting marks future weakness in the income gained by a nuclear family, tending to aggravate the social and economic stresses caused to the children. There is a growing acceptance of illicit relationships and premarital sex amongst children of the adolescence stage. This leads to increase in teenage pregnancy. The stress caused by the family coupled with stresses created by the society make it difficult for the children to cope with. They increase anxiety and temper related issues and mental stress. They tend to experience behavioral problems. Living together creates an imbalance in the emotional and financial security of an individual. These chronic stresses affect the health of the individual. Out-of-Wedlock Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This situation derails progress towards achieving a stable family structure and good health. Most teenage mothers remain single parents[viii]. Their children spend more time in poverty and appalling living conditions in comparison to children from any other family structure. They manifest behavioral problems like anxiety, depression, require psychiatric care, and have tendencies to commit suicide. They are likely to exhibit antisocial behavior. Their risk factors multiply with a downward spiral in health. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The probability of low-birth weight and low neo-natal health index scores is the highest in births arising out-of-wedlock. The motherÃ¢â¬â¢s exhibit increased maternal depression levels. Children from broken families are likely to abuse themselves and therefore harm their well-being. The immune system of these children functions at a rapid rate under chronic stress, thereby rendering them to infectious diseases. WAYS TO PREVENT FAMILY STRESS In stressful circumstances, nutritious meals, exercises, building self-resilience, relaxation techniques and sleep, thinking optimistically, use of social support networks, professional psychotherapy, and sharing the stress maintain health. Ã¢â¬Å"The Holmes- Rahe Life Stress InventoryÃ¢â¬ is a scale that rates social adjustment and the susceptibility to a breakdown caused by stress.[ix]. Ways to prevent stress are:[x] Learn key concepts about personalities, families, communication, make wise child conception or adoption choices Apply this knowledge in daily life. One can increase nurturance levels in family by effective problem solving, clarity in thinking, listing communication strengths, and removing blocks for unconscious toxic habits Understand personal and family policies on feeling and expressing grief or anger, upgrade appropriate personal values and attitudes, keep the family members informed and evolve pro-grief policies Understand if there are others in the family who are grieving their losses. Then, it is equally important to share and discuss healthy grieving and to use a qualified therapist to heal the wounds. Conclusion Genetic variations and experiences of a lifetime increase sensitivity to stress. Chronic stress damages cardiovascular system and immune system suppression. It compromises the ability to fight disease and affects mental health. Medical conditions that are caused by stress include Chronic pain, migraines, ulcers, high blood pressure, anxiety, depression Heart disease, diabetes, asthma, pms, obesity Infertility, autoimmune diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, skin problems Children from broken families are prone to anxiety and depression related health problems and emotional disorders. There is a decrease in economic prosperity and educational achievements The negative impact caused by stress can be reduced by increasing commitment within family members, use of social support networks and self-improvement. Children from stable families achieve higher levels in education, prosper well, make committed and strong relationships, further, and establish a high nurtured environment for their children unlike children from broken families. [i] Mc Cubbin IH, Patterson MJ.The Family Stress Process The double ABCX model of adjustment and adaption. Marriage and Family review.1983.6(1-2):37-7. [ii] Jaffe E, Smith M, Larson H, Segal J. Understanding stress [online] 2007 [cited 2008 June 25]. Available from:URL: http://www.helpguide.org/mental/stress_signs.html [iii] The federal statistics system is unable to provide accurate data on the number of children from broken families as the National Center for Health Statistics and the Bureau of the Census does not collect the complete data on divorce now.1992. [iv] Corcoran Ã E M, Chaudry A. The Dynamics of Childhood Poverty .In : Future of Children.1997. Vol. 7, No. 2 ,pp. 40-54, quoting from G. J. Duncan et al., unpublished research paper, Survey Research Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1994.Lone-Parent Families in the United States, In: Dynamics, Economic Status, and Developmental Consequences. [v] Bumpass LL, Martin CT, Sweet AJ. The Impact of Family Background and Early Marital Factors on Marital Disruption,In: Ã Journal of Family Issues.1991. Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 22-42. [vi] Bumpass et al., The Role of Cohabitation in Declining Rates of Marriage, In: Journal of Family Issues.1991.Vol 12, No.1, pp.22-42. [vii] Bumpass et al., The Impact of Family Background. [viii] Hotz VJ, McElroy SW, Sanders SG. The Impacts of Teenage Childbearing on the Mothers and the Consequences of those Impacts for Government, In: Maynard RA, editors, Urban Institute Press, Washington DC. Economic costs and social costs of teenage pregnancy, In: Kids having kids. 1997. pp-55-94. [ix] The Holmes-Rahe Life Stress Inventory [Document on the internet]. [cited: 2008 Jun 25]. Available from: http://www.bhicares.org/pdf/manual/indepthassessment/homesrahestressinventory.pdf [x] Gerlach KP, Three ways to prevent family stress and divorce, In: High Nurturance Family Relationships. 2008. [Cited,2008 Jun 25]. Available from: http://sfhelp.org/prevent/intro.htm